Knowledge classification method of lighting fixtures
Knowledge of lighting fixtures Classification of lighting fixtures There are many ways to classify lighting fixtures, such as classification according to usage, classification according to luminous flux distribution ratio recommended by CIE, and classification according to dustproof, moisture-proof, and electric shock-proof grades. Among them, the classification according to use has been described in the 'Consumer's Guide' sub-volume, and the remaining classifications will be described in this sub-volume. According to the classification of luminaires recommended by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) (indoor lighting) According to the recommendations of the International Commission on Illumination (CIE), luminaires are divided into five categories according to the ratio of luminous flux distribution in the upper and lower spaces: direct type, semi-direct type, and full diffusion Type (including direct-indirect type with little horizontal light), semi-indirect type and indirect type.
(1) Direct lighting luminaire Most of the luminous flux (90-100%) of this type of luminaire is directly projected underneath, so the luminous flux utilization rate of the luminaire is the highest.
(2) Semi-direct lighting luminaire (Simi-direct lighting luminaire) Most of the luminous flux (60-90%) of this type of luminaire is directed to the lower hemisphere space, and a small part is directed upward. The component directed upward will reduce the amount of light generated by the lighting environment. Shadow hardness and improve the brightness ratio of each surface.
(3) Diffuse or direct-indirect luminaires (diffused lighting luminaire) The luminous flux of luminaires up and down is almost the same (40%-60% each). The most common is a milky glass spherical lampshade, and other closed and diffused lights with various shapes have similar light distribution. This type of lamp casts light evenly in all directions, so the luminous flux utilization rate is low.
(4) Semi-indirect lighting luminaire (simi-indirect lighting luminaire) The downward luminous flux of the luminaire accounts for 10%-40%. Its downward component is often only used to produce brightness commensurate with the ceiling. This component is too much or is not properly distributed. There will be some defects such as direct or indirect glare. The translucent cover with the upper opening belongs to this category. They are mainly used as architectural decorative lighting. Since most of the light is directed to the ceiling and upper walls, the indirect light in the room is increased, and the light is more soft and pleasant.
(5) indirect lighting (indirect lighting luminaire) A small part of the luminous flux (below 10%) of the luminaire is downward. When the design is good, all the ceilings become a lighting source to achieve a soft and shadow-free lighting effect. Since the lamps have little downward light flux, as long as the layout is reasonable, direct glare and reflected glare are very small. The luminous flux utilization rate of these lamps is lower than the previous four.
The ratio of the total luminous flux output by the lamp to the total luminous flux emitted by all light sources in the lamp is generally expressed as a percentage. The light distribution or distribution of luminous intensity of the luminaire uses a curve or table to represent the light output intensity distribution value of the luminaire in each direction of the space. It is called the light distribution curve or light distribution curve of the luminaire, and it is an important characteristic parameter that characterizes the luminaire. . · Glare (glare) In a lighting environment, when the brightness of a light source or object is much greater than the brightness that the eyes have adapted, people will feel dazzling or dazzling. This phenomenon is called glare. Glare can cause discomfort or (and) reduced visibility. The former is called discomfort glare, and the latter is called disability glare.
Eyes in the home If there are no lamps in the family, it is like people have no eyes. The family without eyes can only live in the dark, so the position of the lamp in the family is crucial.
Nowadays, people call lighting fixtures as lighting. From the appellation, people can see that the fixture is not only used for lighting, it can also be used to decorate the room. Choosing lighting room lighting from a scientific perspective is of great significance to human life. It not only guarantees the normal progress of people's diet, cultural entertainment, housework, etc., but also the lamps and lanterns with their beautiful shapes, colors, patterns and artistic effects and interior decoration Merging into a unified body brings a peaceful and comfortable atmosphere to family life. At present, the lamps and lanterns market is extremely diverse, with ever-changing shapes and different performances. The beauty of the lamps is very important. The beautiful colors and well-shaped lamps can bring people a pleasant feeling.
Since the lighting fixture is an organic composition of the entire room decoration, its style, material and illuminance should be unified with the indoor function and decoration style, and purchase lighting fixtures according to this principle. Its ultimate purpose is to make the various light-receiving objects around the lamp have a uniform distribution, so that people's visual functions play a good role. Because people's eyes are not fixed, it is often because of this. If the brightness distribution of interior decorative lighting is too large, it may bring people a brilliant sense of brightness in a short time, and it will cause visual fatigue in a long time. Therefore, it is necessary to scientifically choose lighting fixtures according to the functions of each part of the living room. There are living rooms, study rooms, living rooms, bedrooms, kitchens, bathrooms, and halls in general houses. Due to their different functions, the required light sources are also different. Choose different lamps according to different room functions. The configuration of the living room lighting should be conducive to creating a stable and generous, warm and warm environment, so that guests can feel at home. Generally, a single or multi-head chandelier can be installed in the center of the room as the main light.
If there are banners and calligraphy hanging on the back wall of the sofa, two wall lamps of appropriate size can be installed on both sides of the calligraphy and painting, and a floor lamp can be placed on the side of the sofa. This kind of lamp arrangement is stable and generous, and the light source can be selected according to different needs. It can be used for the first time of the Chinese lamp, the room is full of brilliance, or the single lamp is used alone, which promotes old talk. The study is a place for family members to work and study, which requires a high degree of lighting. Local work lighting can be used for general work and study lighting. Incandescent lamps with higher power are better. The main lighting can be a single-fork chandelier and a fluorescent lamp, and the position is not necessarily in the center. It can be determined according to the specific conditions of the room. The shape and style of the lamps and lanterns should not be too gorgeous, elegant and elegant is better, to create a quiet, peaceful and comfortable environment for people to read. The simple bedroom is used as a place for people to sleep and rest. It should give people a quiet and relaxed feeling, and avoid dazzling light and dazzling lamp shapes. A hanging main lamp can be installed at an appropriate position in the room, and a bedside wall lamp can be installed at the head of the bed.
If it is a double-purpose bedroom, you can install a ceiling fluorescent lamp in the center of the room, and install two wall lamps in the places where you need to increase the illuminance. These lamps are controlled by switches to meet different needs. The restaurant is a place for people to dine, and the table requires horizontal illumination. Therefore, it is advisable to choose a lamp or a pull-down lamp that is strongly irradiated directly downward, so that the pull-down height is 600-700 mm above the table. The position of the lamp is generally on the table Directly above, in order to increase appetite, incandescent lamps with a capacity of more than 60 watts are used. Sometimes the restaurant also has other functions, so it is necessary to have multiple sockets to serve as the power source of the table lamp and floor lamp. The kitchen is a place for cooking and washing utensils. Generally, the area is small. Most of them use general lighting on the ceiling, and the capacity is between 25-40 watts. The modern kitchen is equipped with a range hood above the stove, generally with 25-40 watts of lighting lamps, so that the illumination above the stove has been greatly improved. In the modern kitchen, there are many cabinets above the cooking and cooking stoves. Local lighting can be added under these cabinets to increase the illumination of the console. Bright and soft lamps should be used in the bathroom. The lamps should be moisture-proof and not easy to rust. The light source should be an incandescent lamp with a high color rendering index. When using wall lamps, the lamps should be installed on the wall perpendicular to the curtains, so as not to reflect the shadows on the windows. When using a ceiling light, avoid installing it on the bathtub directly enveloped by steam. The power of wall lamp or ceiling lamp should be 40-60 watts.
Lighting installation needs to comply with the lighting principle. Room lighting is not just to illuminate the room, but to do in accordance with certain principles, in order to have a good decorative effect and reflect the lighting function. First, the lighting must ensure the realization of different lighting required for various activities. Writing, games, rest, meeting guests, etc., no matter what kind of activities should have corresponding lamps and lanterns to play a role. This kind of lighting should be a scientific light distribution, so that people do not feel tired, which is not only beneficial to eye health, but also saves electricity. The second is that lighting should make the room more beautiful. The light irradiation must take care of the outline, level and subject image of various objects in the room. For some special furnishings such as ornaments, paintings, carpets, vases, fish tanks, etc., it must also reflect and even beautify its colors. The third is that the lighting should be reliable and safe. Lamps are not allowed to leak, fire and other phenomena, but also to turn on and turn off. The position of the light source in the lighting is important, but whether this position is selected or not depends on what object you want the light source to illuminate. The first is the person. The most important part of the person is the face. The light projected from different angles will cause different expression effects on the human face. If the person stands directly under a chandelier, direct downward lighting will make the face cold and serious.
If a lamp shines on the face from bottom to top, it will be even worse, and the face will become scary or even vicious. Therefore, in the living room, dining room, sofa group where people often meet, it is not possible to use direct upward or downward lighting. If direct lighting is used for side shots, that is, if the light is projected from above, it will make the outline of the face rich and clear; if diffuse lamps are used to let the scattered light project the face, a clear and friendly image will be obtained. The second is to illuminate the furniture, depending on what effect you want to achieve. If it is a brand new set of furniture, then its color and outline should be highlighted, and multiple light sources can be used to achieve the effect of few shadows in the furniture. As an integral part of decoration, lighting must arrange light sources and their positions according to different types.
Bedrooms in my country often have multiple functions, such as living room, study room, dressing room and so on. Dressing requires uniform light to illuminate from above and in front of the person in order to get a clear image in the mirror, so the light source cannot be placed behind the human brain. If you want to make up, you must also set up auxiliary lights on both sides to let the face All hairs can be seen clearly. Reading and writing require writing desk lamps, and the indoor light can be darker and softer during sleep. However, if you have a habit of reading in bed before bed, it is best to adjust the brightness and angle of the bedside lamp. The simple way is to install two lights, one light and one dark.
There are many functions in the living room, such as chatting with guests, watching TV and listening to music, and if there is a small bar next to the family audio-visual center, then drinks are also here. Don't expect a chandelier to solve all problems. When there are many people, you can use pendant lamps, wall lamps and the like to obtain full illumination and even astigmatism. When two or three people are talking, they can use floor lamps or wall lamps to partially illuminate the coffee table in front of the sofa, instead of illuminating the participants themselves. When the audiovisual center is used, only a small 3 watt light is needed as a backlight in the living room to obtain some faint lighting.
If the house has an entrance hall, it is worth arranging it because it affects one's emotions the most. As soon as you step into the door of the house, if the hall is bright and lively, people who work for a day will feel that they have been thrown into the arms of the family and are refreshed and tired. This requires the installation of recessed cylindrical ceiling lights on the flat roof of the entrance hall. When one is not enough, several lights can be installed. The color is better. If you are an art-loving family, you can make the walls and flat roofs of the halls, corridors, and dark colors, and embed a few small lights, which makes people feel unfathomable. When you step into the room, there is no other way. Of course, although this is unique, it may not be acceptable to everyone, because most people are used to following the rules. The dining room is different from the kitchen. It is best to install a ceiling light for full lighting in the kitchen, and another spotlight to aim at the stovetop for easy operation. The dining room is the place where people eat. Both the east and the west attach great importance to the lighting effect here.
Westerners pay attention to quiet dining, and the indoor lighting is softer and darker; while China has always been proud of its exquisite cooking, which definitely has to appreciate the color of the dishes, which requires that the lights must be bright. In order to balance the two, it is recommended to use stretchable hanging lamps. Not only can the extension cord freely determine the height of the lamp, but its large lampshade in red or other beautiful colors will also increase appetite. Residential houses are generally equipped with bathtubs in the bathroom, so the lighting of the bathroom is nothing more than taking into account the functions of both. Only simple global illumination is needed when taking a shower; face lighting is needed to illuminate the face when washing and makeup. When washing clothes, it is necessary to see whether the clothes in the washing machine are clean, and local lighting is required. Therefore, the bathroom only needs to be equipped with two lamps, one is the main lamp, which can be a wall lamp or a ceiling lamp, 25-40 watts is enough.
Another lamp is equipped with an 8-watt fluorescent lamp above the washbasin, and the newly-available H lamp or other lamps can also be used. The lighting for the elderly should be mainly bright. A little brighter can drive away the feeling of loneliness and increase the sense of security. Generally, an incandescent lamp of 40-60 watts is enough. For children, choose a lively lamp as much as possible. It can be set according to the actual function.
40 watts of reading and writing desk lamps are sufficient. Do not use fluorescent lamps. The flicker that cannot be detected by the human eye due to AC power can stimulate nerves. The lights during the game can be brightened to illuminate the entire room, making the rich colors in the room more beautiful. When you go to bed, you can turn on a special 3-watt long light, which not only solves the problem of children's fear of darkness at night, but also solves the problem of getting up in the middle of the night.
Lighting and lamps
The choice of double-sister lamps is often a difficult problem in decoration. Now there are endless new lamps on the market, round, square, flat, hanging, hanging, embedded, orange, milky, transparent... Choose which is suitable
Although the shape of modern lamps and lanterns has changed a lot, it is inseparable from the three categories of antique, innovation and practicality. Some magnificent pearlescent chandeliers, animal-shaped wall lamps, finely decorated luxurious ceiling lamps, etc. are all modeled on the development of court lamps in the 18th century. This type of light is suitable for social occasions with a large space, and can bring a dazzling sense of luxury to the residence. Other modern lamps with unique shapes, such as various spotlights, bull's-eye lamps, recessed downlights, etc., are all innovative lamps. There is also a class of practical ones, that is, usual fluorescent lamps, three-color energy-saving lamps, writing desk lamps, floor lamps, Bedside lamps, etc. are all traditional and commonly used lamps.
The shape of these three types of lamps should be as serialized as possible in the overall selection. Those who like magnificence should choose the first class of elegant and elegant lamps; the pursuing innovators can choose the second type of chic lamps; and practical lamps are indispensable. When choosing, they must move closer to the above choices. Because the current practical lamps are also divided into antique and innovative secondary.
The color of the lamps must obey the color of the entire room. Because the lamp itself emits light, its color is more striking. In order not to destroy the overall color design of the entire room, we must pay attention to the color of the lampshade and shell of the lamp and the color of the wall, furniture, and curtains. It should be explained here that the color light emitted by the lamp is different from the color of the object. The three primary colors of the object are mixed into black, and the three primary colors of the color are gray, the object blue plus yellow is green, and the color blue plus yellow is yellow. . The decorator can experiment by himself to accentuate a certain color in the room with shade, which is a more advanced decoration method.
Choose lamps according to your artistic taste and room conditions. First of all, according to the living conditions, families with living rooms can use more fashionable lamps in the living room, such as three-prong chandelier, decorative wall lamp, multi-section rotating floor lamp and so on. However, families with tight housing should not install too luxurious and fancy lamps, because it will increase the feeling of crowding. It is not appropriate to install a chandelier in a room below 2.8 meters high. Only a ceiling lamp can be installed to make the room appear taller. If a ceiling fan is installed in a new house, a room cannot have two centers. The main light of this type of room can be solved by two methods, or a ring fluorescent lamp can be installed under the ceiling fan (there are stereotyped commercial products, specially equipped with ceiling fans ), or install a 30-40 watt fluorescent lamp above the curtain frame beside the wall. The luminaire used for the overall lighting of the room is called the main lamp. The main lamp can be hung in the center or on one side, but its brightness should be enough to illuminate the entire room.
Commonly used forms of main lamps include chandeliers, ceiling lamps, wall-mounted fluorescent lamps, and ring-shaped fluorescent lamps. The original traditional method of installing a fluorescent lamp in the room is energy-saving, but it has been eliminated because of its unsightly appearance. However, due to its low consumption and high efficiency, it is still a favorite lighting fixture for most families. Can be placed sideways. Generally, in a room of about 15 square meters, the power of the main lamp should be: 30-40 watts of fluorescent lamps and 100 watts of incandescent lamps (it can be added by several powers, or can be taken by one lamp). The height of the main lamp should be close to the roof and not too low. The three-color high-efficiency lamps that are more popular nowadays have straight tube shapes, U-shapes, double H-shapes, etc. A dozen-watt lamp can be equivalent to 70 watts, and the luminous efficiency is very high. However, the light color seems to be too cold, and the shape is not beautiful enough, so it can only be placed in the secondary part of the lighting instead of being the main lamp in the bedroom, living room, etc. Some families design the main lamp as a multi-fork chandelier, and use a 15-watt candle lamp as the chandelier light source, so that when the guests come, even if the chandelier wall lamp is fully turned on, the interior is still very dark, a bit like a dance hall, a bar , Guests always have a sense of depression and can not be happy, because the main lamp does not play a role in giving light to the interior.
Locally illuminated lamps are generally called auxiliary lamps. The auxiliary lamp is also the same as the main lamp. In addition to the consideration of appearance, it must pay attention to its lighting effect. There are many forms of auxiliary lights, which can be set more according to indoor conditions. The floor lamp is a companion to the sofa. It is commonly used in the reception area. The key to this kind of lamp is the choice of the lampshade. There are indeed some styles in the commercial products, but this needs to be commensurate with the interior layout. Considering that the long pole of the floor lamp takes up space, it is now being quietly replaced by a new type of stretch lamp. This stretch lamp not only has a beautiful fancy lampshade, but also can stay as you like within a certain range. Pushing it higher can illuminate the whole world, and pulling it lower can only illuminate one circle. Wall lamps are widely used, in fact, wall lamps are mainly used to provide a weak illumination.
Corridors, balconies, living rooms, etc. are the places where wall lamps are used, but it is not appropriate to install them in a mess, nor to install several in a room. There are two types of wall lamps: one is open type, with a few pieces of brown glass covered in front; the other is closed type, which uses milky white or other color glass covers to completely enclose the light source. The former can be used indoors such as corridors. The latter can be used in bathrooms and balconies. However, when matching lights, it is necessary to consider that the enclosed lampshade will reduce the brightness, so it should be equipped with a larger gear. The bedside lamp is also a kind of wall lamp, but because of its fixed position, it has become a dedicated device. The choice of lampshade is the key to the bedside lamp. This is the most eye-catching place in the bedroom. It must be selected in accordance with the style of the bedroom.
The table lamp is the most commonly used auxiliary lamp. At least children do their homework every day, so they must choose a special writing table lamp. The lampshade is best in orange transparent plastic. The bulb can be selected as a 40-watt incandescent lamp. As for the non-writing desk lamp, it should focus on the beauty of modeling. There are vase table lamps, antique bronze man table lamps, animal table lamps, etc., which should be as consistent with the decoration style of the place as possible to achieve the effect of setting off each other. Recently, many bull's-eye lamps and tube-type embedded lamps on the market are dark lamps. The purpose of the installation is a quiet and dim atmosphere. It is only suitable for bar areas, audio-visual areas and corridors in residences. It can reduce the suppression of flat roofs. Sense, giving people a dim sense of nightfall. Spotlights are used to illuminate a piece of furniture indoors to highlight the decorative effect, and can also be used for kitchen cooking lighting, which has unique advantages. As for the flashing holiday string lights, it is advisable to hang them during the New Year and New Year holidays, which usually makes the room too noisy. Lighting and decoration—A pair of good brothers are inseparable from lighting. Lighting is a centralized reflection of lighting. It is not only a tool to complete architectural functions and create visual conditions, but also a part of architectural decoration. It is a unity of lighting technology and architectural art. . Therefore, the requirements for lamps must be functional, economical and artistic.
With the continuous changes in architectural space, furniture scale, and people's ideology and lifestyle, the light source, materials, styles and installation methods of lamps have changed a lot. The combination of lamps and indoor environment can form a variety of different styles of indoor atmosphere, so modern lamps not only play a role in the interior, but also an important part of creating an environmental atmosphere. The first thing to consider when considering indoor lighting is the uniformity of the style of lamps used indoors. The chandelier, wall lamp, table lamp, standing lamp and other lamps used should not only be unified in shape, material and color, but also coordinated with the overall interior decoration style (referring to the shape and color of all spatial objects in the room) The overall tone formed) can meet people's aesthetic requirements and create good lighting decoration effects. At present, there are a wide range of materials that can be used to make lamps and lanterns. Metals, ceramics, glass, plastics, bamboo and paper, etc. have a wide range of materials. Choosing the appropriate lamp material, in addition to economy, should consider the entire environmental conditions and the texture and decorative effects of the material to create a different atmosphere. The use of glass and transparent plastic lamps can form an exquisite and rich atmosphere. Lamps made of chrome-plated and nickel-plated metals can show a strong sense of modernity. Lamps and lanterns made of natural materials such as stone, ceramics, and bamboo often give a simple sense of intimacy.
Objects illuminated by natural light or artificial light sources must have sufficient brightness to show color, and human eyes can feel the color. When the light disappears, the color also disappears. At present, the light sources used in artificial lighting include incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps, tungsten halogen lamps, high-pressure mercury lamps, high-pressure sodium lamps, and metal halide lamps.
In order to create architectural space effects and architectural art effects that are in line with architectural functions and conducive to production and cultural activities, attention should be paid to the coordination of light and color. Light is the same as color, and there are differences between people's psychological feelings. Light is illustrated by color temperature, and color is represented by color image. The two are very similar. Therefore, the light color of the light and the texture, color and illuminance of the interior decoration materials can be flexibly combined to form a suitable environment atmosphere. If you use low color temperature light to get a warm and soft atmosphere, you can enhance the softness of the interior wood, cloth, carpet, etc. In hot areas in the south and places with low color temperature light sources such as incandescent lamps and warm white fluorescent lamps, it is advisable to use cold and quiet tones as the indoor base color. For places with low illuminance, a light source with low color temperature should be equipped, and white light is added as the illuminance increases. Sometimes in order to enhance the spatial effect, enrich and improve some of the requirements of modeling, you can use the change of light distribution to create various visual effects. For example, in interior decoration, lighting is often used in conjunction with fabrics and decorative pieces to deal with the interior background, and the color of the light and fabrics, curtains, and floors are used to virtually divide the interior space into areas that attract attention. For example, to prevent visitors from seeing the bed when they enter the door at night, brighter spotlights can be used to highlight the paintings on the wall as the visual center; to attract the first attention of the guests after entering the door. As another example, yellow lights can be used to increase the depth of field feeling in small spaces.